What is a patent foramen ovale?
The foramen ovale is a small opening between the 2 upper chambers of the heart (the atria). It is normally present before birth and closes in most people after birth. If the foramen ovale does not close all the way, it is called a patent foramen ovale (PFO).
PFO can cause some problems. For example:
- If you have pulmonary hypertension, PFO may make shortness of breath much worse.
- Scuba divers with PFO may be more likely to have small strokes and damage to the brain when they dive. During decompression after diving, small nitrogen bubbles may form in the blood. These bubbles may act like blood clots and cause small strokes or brain damage. Talk with your healthcare provider if you are a diver.
What is the cause?
The foramen ovale lets blood skip the trip to the lungs. Before birth a baby’s blood does not need to go through the lungs to pick up oxygen because the baby gets oxygen-rich blood from the mother. After birth, increased blood pressure on the left side of the heart normally forces the flap over the hole to seal it, so all of the blood then travels from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
Sometimes the flap does not seal. When this happens, the foramen ovale may open at times, and less blood will get to the lungs to pick up oxygen.
It is not known why the flap seals after birth in most people but not everyone.
What are the symptoms?
A patent foramen ovale usually does not cause any symptoms. In rare cases a baby with PFO may turn blue when crying or straining to pass a bowel movement.
How is it diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and medical history and examine you.
The best test for a patent foramen ovale is a transesophageal echocardiogram. This test uses sound waves (ultrasound) and a computer to look at your heart. During the test a small amount of fluid is injected into your veins. The fluid contains tiny bubbles that are detected by the echocardiogram. This helps your healthcare provider see how blood is flowing in the heart.
The best test for a patent foramen ovale is a transesophageal echocardiogram. This test uses sound waves (ultrasound) and a computer to look at the heart. During the test a small amount of fluid is injected into the veins. The fluid contains tiny bubbles that are detected by the echocardiogram. This helps your healthcare provider see how blood is flowing in the heart.
How is it treated?
Most people with PFO do not need any treatment. If you are having surgery for other problems with the heart, the hole may be closed during the surgery. The hole may also be closed with heart catheterization to place a device to plug the hole. Heart catheterization uses a small tube called a catheter inserted into a blood vessel and moved up into your heart.
You may need surgery or catheterization to close the hole if your blood needs to get more oxygen from the lungs. Sometimes healthcare providers recommend closing the hole to prevent recurring stroke.
Some healthcare providers may prescribe medicine such as warfarin or aspirin to try to lower the chance of blood clots that might cause a stroke, but the benefits of this treatment are not clear.
How can I take care of myself?
Follow your healthcare provider's instructions. Ask your provider:
- How and when you will hear your test results
- How long it will take to recover
- What activities you should avoid and when you can return to your normal activities
- How to take care of yourself at home
- What symptoms or problems you should watch for and what to do if you have them
Make sure you know when you should come back for a checkup. Keep all of your regular checkup appointments with your healthcare provider.
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