Sexually Transmitted InfectionsLast updated: Aug 04, 2014
Bacteria, viruses, and parasites cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Data show that STIs are particularly common in young people aged 15 to 24 years; however, the infections can occur in sexually active people of all ages. They are most commonly passed on during vaginal, anal, and oral sexual contact; however, some STIs can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. In addition, people who share intravenous needles can transmit certain STIs. Because many STIs have no symptoms, it’s possible to have, spread, and get an STI without knowing it. For this reason, it’s important to be screened regularly to protect your health and the health of your partners if you are sexually active.
Many STIs can cause serious health problems such as cervical cancer, liver disease, infertility, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) if they are not treated. STIs in pregnant women also can cause serious health problems for unborn children. Having herpes, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and chancroid can increase the chances of getting the human immunosuppressive virus (HIV) if you are exposed to it.
The good news is that there are effective treatments for many STIs. For example, vaccines can protect against viral STIs such as hepatitis B and some strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Certain bacterial and parasitic STIs can be treated with antibiotics and other medicines. Although there are no cures for viral STIs, some of the infections can be managed with medication.
There are many ways you can reduce the risk of getting and spreading certain STIs, including:
- Learning how STIs are spread
- Learning about safe sexual practices
- Talking openly and agreeing on safe practices with your sex partner(s) before you engage in sexual contact
- Telling your partner(s) if you have an STI so that he or she also can be screened and treated
- Talking openly with your physician about your sexual history so that he or she will know how often you should be screened
If you think you might have an STI, contact your physician immediately. He or she will test you and decide what treatment is best for you. Ask how often you should have a pelvic examination and whether STI screening should be part of your annual physical and gynecologic examination.
If you are a woman who would like more information
about safe sexual practices,
STI screening, and STI treatment,
please call Summit Medical Group Obstetrics and Gynecology
If you are a man who would like to learn more about STIs,
how you can protect yourself from them,
screening for the infections, and treatment,
please call Summit Medical Group Urology
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov/STD/. Accessed March 17, 2010.